The tell includes two phases of use, believed to be of a social or ritual nature by site discoverer and excavator Klaus Schmidt ,  dating back to the 10th-8th millennium BCE. More than pillars in about 20 circles are known as of May through geophysical surveys. They are fitted into sockets that were hewn out of the local bedrock. Younger structures date to classical times. The details of the structure's function remain a mystery. The excavations have been ongoing since by the German Archaeological Institute , but large parts still remain unexcavated. The site was first noted in a survey conducted by Istanbul University and the University of Chicago in
The half-life of C is years. If dinosaur bones are 65 million years old, there should not be one atom of C left in them.
Clearly something is wrong with the conventional wisdom about dinosaur bones, but it has been hard to reach the public with the information. Despite being simple test results without any interpretation, they were not allowed to be presented in conference proceedings by the North American Paleontological Convention, the American Geophysical Union in an the Geological Society of America in an and by the editors of various scientific journals.
On one occasion, they were allowed to display a poster. Watch a video of what happens when you try to get members of the academic community involved. Dinosaur soft tissue. Many dinosaur bones are not petrified. Mary Schweitzer, paleobiology researcher and professor of biological sciences at North Carolina State University, surprised scientists in when she reported finding soft tissue in dinosaur bones.
She started a firestorm of controversy in and when she reported that she had sequenced proteins in dinosaur bone. Critics charged that the findings were mistaken or that what she called soft tissue was really biofilm produced by bacteria that had entered from outside the bone.
Schweitzer answered the challenge by testing with antibodies. Her report in confirmed the presence of collagen and other proteins that bacteria do not make. Science, Vol. Ina Swedish team found soft tissue and biomolecules in the bones of another creature from the time of the dinosaurs, a Mosasaur, which was a giant lizard that swam in shallow ocean waters. Microspectroscopic Evidence of Cretaceous Bone Proteins.
A remarkable find was published in the journal Nature in April "we report the discovery of a monotaxic embryonic dinosaur bone bed in Lower Jurassic [ million year old] strata near Dawa, Lufeng County, Yunnan Province, China". The "bone bed is characterized by the presence of completely disarticulated skeletal elements at various stages of embryonic development". This made it possible to detect the preservation of organic residues, probably direct products of the decay of complex proteinswithin both the fast-growing embryonic bone tissue and the margins of the vascular spaces.
Carbon dating, method of age determination that depends upon the decay to nitrogen of radiocarbon (carbon). Carbon is continually formed in nature by the interaction of neutrons with nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere. Learn more about carbon dating in this article. Apr 28, Scientists Extract DNA From Ancient Humans Out of Cave Dirt DNA analysis of sediments might eventually become a routine part of archeology, similar to radio carbon dating. Jun 28, Radiocarbon dating, for example, can only be performed on objects younger than 62, years old, only results in date ranges, and can be thrown .
Our results clearly indicate the presence of both apatite and amide peaks within woven embryonic bone tissue, which should not be susceptible to microbial contamination or other post-mortem artefacts. Huang, Eric M. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains. Nature, Vol. The discovery of original organics in an ichthyosaur supposedly million years old Early Jurassic leaves no doubt about the preservation of soft tissue and biomolecules.
Researchers from North Carolina State University and Sweden's Lund University reported their findings in "Our analyses recovered still-flexible remnants of the original scaleless skin, which comprises morphologically distinct epidermal and dermal layers. These are underlain by insulating blubber that would have augmented streamlining, buoyancy and homeothermy. Additionally, we identify endogenous proteinaceous and lipid constituents, together with keratinocytes and branched melanophores that contain eumelanin pigment.
Soft-tissue evidence for homeothermy and crypsis in a Jurassic ichthyosaur. Microscopist Mark Armitage found sheets of soft tissue with bone cells osteocytes in a triceratops horn. This scanning electron microscope image from a paper published in Acto Histochemica in VolumeIssue 6, Julypages shows "four osteocytes lying on fibrillar bone matrix.
Schweitzer wondered why such materials are preserved when all the models say they should be degraded. She coauthored a paper published in proposing that there is a role for iron in preserving proteins in fossil tissues. However, iron is not always present in dinosaur soft tissue. Jasmina Wiemann coauthored a paper published in proposing a different solution to the problem: polymerization of proteins in oxidative settings.
A report in Science magazine explained more about these findings, showing that although the protein structure in selected dinosaur bones was changed, their organic material is apparently original. Yet the associated brown and black bones and residues constitute only a portion of the preserved organics in dinosaur bones, as described by Brian Thomas.
For years, until their access was blocked, the Paleochronology group had AMS laboratories conduct Carbon tests on dinosaur bones. The tests yielded dates in the range of 22, to 39, years before present. Dinosaur DNA fragments.
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From the March news release "Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and North Carolina State University have found evidence of preserved fragments of proteins and apparent chromosomes within isolated cell-like microstructures in cartilage from a baby duckbilled dinosaur. The findings further support the idea that these original molecules can persist for tens of millions of years. This is significant because collagen II is found only in cartilage, while collagen I dominates in bone.
Schweitzer noted that "bacteria cannot produce collagen, which rules out contamination as the source of the molecules. March 2, North Carolina State University news release.
From the published paper "A nesting ground yielding dozens of disarticulated nestlings assigned to the herbivorous duck-billed dinosaur Hypacrosaurus stebingeri was discovered in the s in the Upper Cretaceous Campanian Two Medicine Formation of northern Montana.
The "study specimen had not been previously embedded in resin. Because extant primary cartilage does not usually express collagen I, no binding was expected, and none was observed in Collagen II is not produced by microbes; positing a microbial source is not parsimonious or congruent with the data. Therefore, positive PI staining cannot arise from contamination with living i. It is sequence dependent requiring at least three successive AT [Adenine-Thymine] base pairs as a binding site.
This not only supports that the compound within these cells is chemically consistent with DNA, but that material is double stranded, and of a minimum length of 6 base pairs. Even though it is clear that contamination does exist in fossil material and complicates identifications of original organic molecules, it can be accounted for with proper controls.
Contamination is not a plausible explanation in this case". Horner, Brian K. Hall, Casey M. Holliday, Mary H. Advance access publication, 12 January Evidence of proteins, chromosomes and chemical markers of DNA in exceptionally preserved dinosaur cartilage.
National Science Review, 8 pages. Michael J.
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He believes the DNA is from bacteria, ignoring the staining test that refutes a bacterial source by binding to DNA fragments in isolated cartilage cells, but he did say something useful: "Those studying what they believe to be ancient DNA are now careful to decontaminate their samples and work in antiseptic conditions. But we now also know that DNA molecules break down very easily and will typically survive only a few years.
Hundred-year-old samples of DNA from museum specimens are massively fragmented and the breakdown of their molecular structure continues rapidly. DNA from fossils maybe 50, years old can be reconstructed from millions of short fragments. The oldest such samples areyears old - a long way from the 66 million year of the last dinosaurs. A study supports that conclusion, showing that, even under ideal conditions, all mitochondrial DNA bonds would be broken by 6. These results provide a baseline for predicting long-term DNA survival in bone.
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From: Allentoft, Morten E. The half-life of DNA in bone: measuring decay kinetics in dated fossils. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Vol. Looking at the table, we immediately go to the 6. But that is only if the preservation temperature is minus 5 degrees Celsius. The current global surface temperature is around The chart below shows that, in the geologic time scale since the end of the Cretaceous, the global surface temperature was 25 degrees Celsius or higher for many millions of years.
That's a different line on the table. The preservation of dinosaur soft tissue and DNA fragments points to dinosaur bones being tens of thousands, not tens of millions, years old, contradicting the geologic time scale. So do the Carbon tests:. The Data: Carbon in dinosaur bones download more details. Dinosaur a. C Years B. USA State. Baugh and G. Detwiler; in MA Cretaceous sandstone - identified by Dr. Langston of Un. Allosaurus is a carnivorous dinosaur excavated in by the J. Hall, A.
Murray team. Hadrosaur 1, a duck billed dinosaur. Bone fragments were excavated in along Colville River by G. Detwiler, J. Hadrosaur 2, a duck billed dinosaur. Kline team of the Glendive Dinosaur and Fossil Museum. It was sawed open by the O. Kline, H. Miller team in to retrieve samples for C testing. Triceratops 1, a ceratopsid dinosaur. A lone femur bone was excavated in in Cretaceous clay at 47 6 18N by 39 22W in Montana by the O.
Triceratops 2, a very large ceratopsid-type dinosaur excavated in in Cretaceous clay at 47 02 44N and 32 49W in Montana by the O. Kline team of Glendive Dinosaur and Fossil Museum. Outer bone fragments of a femur were tested for C Hadrosaur 3, a duck billed dinosaur. Scrapings were taken from a large bone excavated by Joe Taylor of Mt.
Apatosaur, a sauropod. Scrapings were taken from a rib still imbedded in the clay soil of a ranch in CO, partially excavated in an in Ma late Jurassic strata by C. Baugh and B. Bow is the bulk organic fraction of whole bone; Col is collagen fraction; w or ext is charred, exterior or whole bone fragments; Hum is humic acids.
Bioapatite is a major component of the mineralised part of bones.
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It incorporates a small amount of carbonate as a substitute for phosphate in the crystal lattice. Charred bone is the description given by lab personnel for blackened bone surfaces. Collagen: Proteins that are the main component of connective tissue. Yet it is found in four-foot long, nine-inch diameter dinosaur femur bones claimed to be greater than 65 million years old. The "Modified Longin Method" is the normal purification method for bone collagen. Libby, the discoverer of Radiocarbon dating and Nobel Prize winner, showed that purified collagen could not give erroneous ages.
Others should attempt to replicate these results, as two researchers did in :. Data from page of: Thomas, Brian, Vance Nelson. Spring Radiocarbon in Dinosaur and Other Fossils. Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. A similar result 24, years BP was obtained for a Mosasaur in Watch a video of the conference presentation. See the conference schedule for presentation of abstract BGA at On the conference website, the abstract was removed from position number 5.
Banned by the Center for Applied Isotope Studies. From through the Paleochronology group had 11 dinosaur bone samples carbon dated by the Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia, and for good reason.
Senior research scientist Alexander Cherkinsky specializes in the preparation of samples for Carbon testing.
He directed the pretreatment and processing of the dinosaur bone samples with the Accelerator Mass Spectrometer, though he did not know the bones were from dinosaurs, and he signed the reports.
Carbon dating at this facility is certainly the very best. But insomeone told the director of the facility, Jeff Speakman, that the Paleochronology group was showing the Carbon reports on a website and YouTube and drawing the obvious conclusions.
So when he received another bone sample from the Paleochronology group, he returned it to sender and sent an email saying: "I have recently become aware of the work that you and your team have been conducting with respect to radiocarbon dating of bone. The scientists at CAIS and I are dismayed by the claims that you and your team have made with respect to the age of the Earth and the validity of biological evolution.
Consequently, we are no longer able to provide radiocarbon services in support of your anti-scientific agenda. I have instructed the Radiocarbon Laboratory to return your recent samples to you and to not accept any future samples for analysis.
Notice that he did not say the radiocarbon reports of the dinosaur bone samples were inaccurate. No, his objection was that the Paleochronology group was using the reports as evidence that dinosaurs lived thousands, not millions, of years ago. So I asked him 3 times over 3 weeks what is the right conclusion to draw from the test results they provided us; then I asked his entire scientific staff.
None of them had an answer. This is an attitude we have encountered among members of academia: there is an established truth, and all evidence contrary to it is rejected. A nyone who challenges the established truth is made an enemy.
The threat hangs over everyone. A manager of a commercial laboratory that does Carbon dating, Beta Analytic Inc. Her interest led us to propose that her company perform a Carbon test on a T-rex bone we acquired. She wrote back:. Thanks for considering our service in this project. We wish you well in your research but must choose to opt-out of the analysis. Since you have identified it as T-rex, and these are known to be extinct for 50 million years, it is beyond the limit of our dating.
If a "recent" result was derived it would be universally challenged with possible risks of poor result claims for our laboratory. This is a project much better suited for collaboration with a university laboratory. It has demonstrated both the technical competency and management system requirements necessary to consistently deliver technically valid test results.
These standards are universally recognized as the highest level of quality attainable by a testing laboratory. Mark Armitage and the triceratops horn. Mark was suddenly terminated by the Biology Department when his discovery of soft tissues in a Triceratops horn was published in Acta Histochemica. The university claimed his appointment had been temporary and that they lacked funding for the position. This was news to him, and contradicted prior statements and documents from the university.
Mark Armitage has a MS degree in biology and has been a microscope scientist microscopist for 30 years. He was the president of the Southern California Society for Microscopy for several years. He has some 30 publications to his credit. Mark's micrographs have appeared on the covers of eleven scientific journals, and he has many technical publications on microscopic phenomena in such journals as American Laboratory, Southern California Academy of Sciences Bulletin, Parasitology Research, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Microscopy Today and Acta Histochemica, among others.
According to papers filed with the Superior Court of Los Angeles County, when Mark Armitage interviewed for an opening at CSUN for a "regular" "part-time" microscopist in he told the panel that he had published materials supportive of creationism.
William Krohmer, Manager of Technical Services and Safety, who would be Armitage's direct supervisor, was on the panel. The panel hired Armitage despite his creationist writings because of his exceptional qualifications. The position was Electron Microscopy Technician in the Department of Biology, working two ten-hour days per week.
He was "permanent part-time" and was allowed to enroll in the full benefits package of the university. He ran the Microscopy Imaging Facility with its three electron microscopes, personally training students and faculty on their proper use.
Basics of Soil Dating. Carbon exists in the most part in the isotope C, but has a radioactive isotope, C, with a half-life of years. All terrestrial organisms use carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as a source of carbon, thus there is a constant exchange of C with the atmosphere. Jul 10, Carbon dating is used by archeologists to date trees, plants, and animal remains; as well as human artifacts made from wood and leather; because these items are generally younger than 50, years. Carbon is found in different forms in the environment - mainly in the stable form of carbon and the unstable form of carbon Oct 03, A formula to calculate how old a sample is by carbon dating is: t = [ ln (Nf/No) / ] x t1/2. t = [ ln (N f /N o) / ] x t 1/2. where ln is the natural logarithm, N f /N o is the percent of carbon in the sample compared to the amount in living tissue, and t 1/2 is the half-life of carbon (5, years). So, if you had a fossil that had 10 percent carbon compared to.
He was often praised for his work and accomplishments. The Biology Department bought a new confocal microscope that used high-powered lasers for imaging and was computer-driven. Armitage supervised the installation of the new microscope.
He was assigned to be the only instructor on it, with responsibility for control and supervision of the instrument. In Februaryhe was asked to teach a full graduate course in Biological Imaging for the Biology Department. In MarchDr. Steven B. Oppenheimer sent an email to staff saying that the two days per week that Armitage was working needed to be expanded in order to facilitate the growing demands of the microscopy lab.
In JuneDr. Ernest Kwok was made chairman of the committee overseeing the microscopy lab, and became Armitage's new supervisor. In the summer ofArmitage responded to an invitation to participate in a search for dinosaur fossils in Glendive, Montana in the famous Hell Creek formation. He found the brow-horn of a triceratops; it was not petrified. Studying the horn at the CSUN lab, he discovered soft tissue in the supposedly million-year-old or more fossil.
While teaching students how to use microscopes in the lab that he directed at CSUN, Armitage engaged them in brief socratic dialogue about the possible age of the horn.
One of Dr. Kwok's students was stunned by the discovery and implications of soft tissue in the triceratops horn, and told Dr.
Kwok about it. On June 12,Dr. Kwok stormed into Armitage's lab and shouted, "We are not going to tolerate your religion in this department! Armitage reported this to the Biology Department chair, Dr. They both played down the event and told Armitage to forget it. Praise for Armitage's work continued from distinguished members of the Biology Department.
In Novembera photo of the soft tissue in the triceratops horn was published on the cover of American Laboratory magazine. The former chair of the Biology Department, Dr. Oppenheimer, wrote a ringing endorsement of Armitage in a letter of recommendation. On February 12,the journal Acta Histochemica published a paper by Armitage describing the discovery of soft tissue in the triceratops horn. Acta Histochemica is a peer-reviewed journal of structural biochemistry of cells and tissue that welcomes advanced microscopical imaging; it has been publishing since On the day the paper was published, Dr.
Kwok called a secret meeting of the committee overseeing the microscopy lab. The assumption that the site was strictly cultic in purpose and not inhabited has been challenged as well by the suggestion that the structures served as large communal houses, "similar in some ways to the large plank houses of the Northwest Coast of North America with their impressive house posts and totem poles.
Human burials may have occurred at the site. The reason the complex was carefully backfilled remains unexplained. Based on current evidence, it is difficult to deduce anything certain about the originating culture or the site's significance.
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Future plans include construction of a museum and converting the environs into an archaeological parkin the hope that this will help preserve the site in the state in which it was discovered. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism responded that no concrete was used and that no damage had occurred.
The pattern is an equilateral triangle that connects enclosures A, B, and D.
The authors suggest that enclosures A, B, and D are all one complex, and within this complex there is a "hierarchy" with enclosure D at the top. Third, the idea that each enclosure was built and functioned individually seems less likely - at least in planning and their early stages - given their findings. But they maintain that their suggestions that enclosures A, B, and D being a single complex makes it unlikely that each enclosure was built separately.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Animal sculpture c. Pillar 27 from Enclosure C Layer III with the sculpture of a predatory animal in high relief catching a prey in low relief. Chronology of the Neolithic period . Hittite Capital of Hattusa Safranbolu. Historic city of Ani. Ancient settlements in Turkey. Forvo Pronunciation Dictionary. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 31 March In Laneri, Nicola ed.
Oxbow Books. Retrieved 22 May The Archaeology of Malta. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 25 November Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2 August Retrieved 1 July Braidwood ed. In Steadman, Sharon R. The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The New Yorker.
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Retrieved 26 August State of Research and New Data". Retrieved 24 November Radiocarbon dating the first temples of mankind. Archived from the original on 13 March Munichp. Eine Beschreibung der wichtigsten Befunde erstellt nach den Arbeiten der Grabungsteams der Jahre - Ausgrabungen und Forschungen zwischen Donau und Euphrat.
Oldenburgp. US: Oxford University Press. Archaeo News. Religions of second millennium Anatolia. Archaeology magazine.
November-December World Archaeology. The semiotics of Gobekli Tepe's map an exercise of archaeological imagination ; in Andrea Vianello ed. Schmidt "Zuerst kam der Tempel, dann die Stadt. University of Arizona Press. Schmidt in Schmidt ed.
Retrieved 26 March Retrieved 13 May Cambridge Archaeological Journal. Bibcode : PLoSO Bibcode : Sci The Origins of Agriculture in Europe.
Douglas Europe's First Farmers. Stiebing; Helft, Susan N. Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture. Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe ed. Januar bis zum Juni Charles C. In: Neo-lithics. In: Chr. Schmidt: "Zuerst kam der Tempel, dann die Stadt. Istanbuler Mitteilungen 50 : 5- A preliminary Report on the - Excavations. Schmidt: Sie bauten die ersten Tempel.
Carbon dating has yielded dates between and BCE. Several T-pillars up to meters tall occupy the center of the rooms. A pair decorated with fierce-looking lions is the rationale for the name "lion pillar building" by which their enclosure is known. A stone pillar resembling totem pole designs was discovered at Gobekli Tepe, Layer. Carbon dating dirt - If you are a middle-aged woman looking to have a good time dating woman half your age, this article is for you. Rich man looking for older woman & younger woman. I'm laid back and get along with everyone. Looking for an old soul like myself. I'm a lady. My interests include staying up late and taking naps. Join the leader in rapport services and find a date today. Carbon dating of bone is one of the most difficult tasks in carbon dating, and requires the most care of any carbonaceous material. This is mainly due to the nature of bone, which is a very porous material. Certain parts of bone look like a sponge under the microscope.
Verlag C. Schmidt ed. Studien und MaterialienBand 2. Megalithic Portal. Middle Eastern megaliths. Stone circles, lines and tombs near the Monastery of Saint Moses the Abyssinian. Hejaz Tihamah. Atlit Yam Dan ancient city. Johfiyeh Amman. Nabta Playa. Kharg Island. Barda Balka. Prehistoric technology. Game drive system Buffalo jump. Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Well.
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Download as Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Pre-Pottery Neolithic A to B. Western Asia. Early Pottery 18, BCE . Jericho Tell Abu Hureyra . Tell Sabi Abyad Bouqras. Mehrgarh I . Neolithic Europe Franchthi Sesklo .
Pottery Neolithic Jarmo. Chogha Bonut.
Teppe Zagheh. Pottery Neolithic Sesklo Dimini. Pottery Neolithic Ubaid 0 Tell el-'Oueili.