Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. The initial symptoms of the disease included fever and vomiting. The origin of smallpox is unknown. Inoculation for smallpox appears to have started in China around the s. There were two forms of the smallpox virus. Variola major was the severe and most common form, with a more extensive rash and higher fever, which can result in confluent smallpox, which had a high death rate.
There may also be fewer, more superficial lesions than those seen in ordinary smallpox. Patients also do not tend to have a fever during the evolution of the rash. Flat-type-or malignant-smallpox is very rare, and is characterized by intense toxemia.
It occurs more frequently in children. They never progress to the pustular stage. The appearance of the lesions suggests a deficient cellular immune response to variola virus, and the majority of flat-type smallpox cases are fatal.
If the patient survives, the lesions gradually disappear without forming scabs. Prior vaccination appears to protect against flat-type smallpox. Hemorrhagic-type smallpox occurs among all ages and in both sexes, but is more common in adults.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. The last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in October , and the World Health Organization (WHO) certified the global eradication of the disease in The risk of death following contracting the disease was about 30%, with higher rates among truthexchange-sow.comms: Early: Fever, vomiting, mouth sores, Later: . Dec 08, Researchers compared and contrasted the 17th Century strain to those from a modern databank of samples dating from up to its eradication in While smallpox . African Smallpox Idol. The Yoruba people of Nigeria hoped to avoid infection by worshipping Sopona, the god of smallpox. Scientists think smallpox may have originated in Africa about 3, years ago.
Pregnant women appear to be more susceptible. The underlying biological reasons for this type are unclear. Prior vaccination is not protective. This type is differentiated from ordinary smallpox by:. Death usually occurs by the 5 th or 6 th day of the rash, often before characteristic smallpox lesions develop.
Death results from a profound toxemia, leading to multi-organ failure. Section Navigation.
Clinical Disease Minus Related Pages. See Ordinary Smallpox image below. Incubation Period Infection with variola virus begins with an incubation period usually lasting between 10 to 14 days range 7 to 19 days.
Eruptive Stage As the fever subsides, rash lesions begin to develop. See Eruptive Stage image below. Sequelae Pockmarks and scarring are the most common sequelae. Other sequelae include: Blindness is a rare occurrence and results from corneal scarring following keratitis or corneal ulcerations.
Encephalitis Osteomyelitis Stillbirths and spontaneous abortions Infertility obstructive azoospermia in males Recovery from smallpox gives the patient prolonged immunity to re-infection with variola virus.
See Sequelae image below. Modified-type Smallpox Modified-type smallpox occurs in previously vaccinated individuals. See Modified-type Smallpox image below. Flat-type malignant Smallpox Flat-type-or malignant-smallpox is very rare, and is characterized by intense toxemia.
See Flat-type malignant Smallpox image below. Hemorrhagic Smallpox Hemorrhagic-type smallpox occurs among all ages and in both sexes, but is more common in adults. This type is differentiated from ordinary smallpox by: Shorter incubation period More severe prodromal symptoms with high fever, severe headache, and abdominal pain Development of a dusky erythema after illness onset, followed by petechiae and skin and mucosal hemorrhages Death usually occurs by the 5 th or 6 th day of the rash, often before characteristic smallpox lesions develop.
See Hemorrhagic Smallpox image below.
Ordinary Smallpox. Male smallpox patient with lesions on upper body, arms, face, and neck. Modified-type Smallpox.
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Feet of patient with modified-type smallpox. The rash resembles varicella. Source: CDC's Dr.
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Home Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes. Lithuanian crypt where the child mummy was located.
Chapter 3: How to Care for the Smallpox Vaccination Site and Prevent the Spread of Vaccinia Virus
Credit: Kiril Kachovskij. A mummy found in the same Lithuanian crypt where researchers extracted DNA from a small child, thought to have died of smallpox.
Credit: McMaster University.
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Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Oct 02, Related Stories. Scientists recommend further research, delay in destruction of last stocks of smallpox May 01, May 23, Sep 22, Man who got smallpox vaccine passes milder infection to sex partner Feb 28, May 29, Apr 18, Recommended for you.
Smallpox is the only human disease that has been successfully eradicated. 1. Smallpox, an infectious disease caused by the variola virus was a major cause of mortality in the past, with historic records of outbreaks across the world. Whilst we have presented data on smallpox deaths in London dating .
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Jul 26, A photo from The Swedish National Heritage Board shows a 1,year-old smallpox-infected Viking skeleton found in Oland, Sweden. An extinct version of the smallpox virus dating to 1, years ago. Jun 24, No one's quite positive when it first appeared in human history; there's some evidence of smallpox on Egyptian mummies dating back to around BCE. The virus spread quickly and easily - through direct contact, but also by droplets produced by sneezing and coughing, since it would first appear as sores in the mouth and throat. Mar 31, Smallpox likely originated in Egypt or India more than 3, years ago (WHO: Smallpox). Egyptian mummies dating from as early as BC showed characteristic pox-like skin lesions suggestive of smallpox. Smallpox initially was introduced to the native populations of the Western Hemisphere by explorers from Europe and later by African slaves.
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